In this chapter we describe generalizations of linear decision boundaries for classification. Optimal separating hyperplanes are introduced in Chapter 4 for the case when two classes are linearly separable. Here we cover extensions to the nonseparable case, where the classes overlap. These techniques are then generalized to what is known as the support vector machine, which produces nonlinear boundaries by constructing a linear boundary in a large, transformed version of the feature space. The second set of methods generalize Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The generalizations include flexible discriminant analysis which facilitates construction of non-linear boundaries in a manner very similar to the support vector machines, penalized discriminant analysis for problems such as signal and image classification where the large number of features are highly correlated, and mixture discriminant analysis for irregularly shaped classes.